Q. How do I in-text cite an in-class discussion?


To cite an in-class discussion:

  • Visit the APA Help guide.
  • View the References and In-text Citation Examples
  • Click on Other
  • Look for Personal Communication.
  • Since an in-class discussion is not a published work, look for the information about an Interview or Personal Communication.  This one is the closest to a class discussion.


 Do not include in reference list; cite in text only. Example:

 P. Drucker (personal communication, September 20, 2018) believes that there are several different   types of managers.

If the class discussion was online (where someone could retrieve it):

Smith, A. B. (2018, March 22). Time management strategies. Message posted to [class] on https://

In-text: Paraphrase: (Smith, 2018). Quotation: (Smith, 2018, para. 2).

Thank you for using ASK US. For more information contact your Campus Library/ARC.


  • Last Updated Dec 11, 2018
  • Views 14835
  • Answered By Beth Lofgren

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Comments (2)

  1. amazing post
    by mecer on Oct 01, 2015.
  2. helpful
    by andy on Mar 30, 2019.

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