Q. How do I reference and cite a live person?

I interviewed a clinical social worker.


To see an example of citing an interview visit the APA Help guide.

  • Click on References and In-text Citation Examples  
  • Click on Other
  • Click on Personal Communication (which includes interviews and e-mail)
Personal Communication

Show only in-text. Format:
First & Middle initials Last name (personal communication, Month Day, year).


Example for in-text: 

According to Professor K.A. West (personal communication, August 3, 2018) ...

APA citation style has the following to say about citing personal communication:

"Personal communications may be letters, memos, some electronic communications, telephone conversations, and the like. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included on the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible."

If you need additional assistance, contact a campus librarian. Thank you for using ASK US.


  • Last Updated Jan 30, 2018
  • Views 232
  • Answered By Beth Lofgren

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