Q. How do I in-text cite an in-class discussion?


An in-class discussion is not a published work, nor is it recoverable by the reader, so it is closest in APA to an Interview or Personal Communication.

To cite an in-class discussion:

  • Visit the APA Help guide.
  • View the References and In-text Citation Examples.
  • Click on Other.
  • Look for Personal Communication.


 Do not include in reference list; cite in text only.

 Professor Smith (personal communication/class discussion, September 20, 2019) believes that   there are several different types of managers.

If the class discussion was online (where someone could retrieve it):

Smith, A. B. (2019, March 22). Title of message post in italics. Message posted to [class] on website address.

In-text: Paraphrase: (Smith, 2019). Quotation: (Smith, 2019, para. 2).

Thank you for using ASK US. For more information contact your Campus Library/ARC.


  • Last Updated Jan 22, 2020
  • Views 18619
  • Answered By Baker Librarians

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Comments (2)

  1. amazing post
    by mecer on Oct 01, 2015.
  2. helpful
    by andy on Mar 30, 2019.

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